By Richard H. Groshong
Geological buildings are 3 dimensional, but are usually represented by way of, and - terpreted from, outcrop maps and constitution contour maps, either one of that are curved two-dimensional surfaces. Maps plus serial sections, known as 2½-D, supply a more in-depth method of 3 dimensionality. computing device know-how now enables geological interpretations to be constructed from the start in an absolutely 3 dim- sional surroundings. totally 3-D geological versions let much better interpre- tions and interpretations which are a lot more uncomplicated to proportion with different geologists and with most of the people. This ebook presents an summary of ideas for developing structural interpretations in 2-D, 2½-D and 3D environments; for interpolating - tween and extrapolating past the keep an eye on issues; and for validating the ultimate int- pretation. The underlying philosophy is that buildings are third-dimensional sturdy our bodies and that info from in the course of the constitution, no matter if in 2-D or 3D structure, could be built-in into an internally constant three-D interpretation. it's assumed that almost all clients of this ebook will do their paintings on a working laptop or computer. C- sequently, the publication presents quantitative structural equipment and strategies which are designed to be used with spreadsheets, mapping software program, and three-d c- puter-graphics courses. The e-book is usually meant to supply the heritage for figuring out what interpretive software program, for instance, a working laptop or computer contouring p- gram, does instantly. such a lot options are provided in either a standard layout applicable for paper, pencil, and a pocket calculator, and in quantitative structure to be used with spreadsheets and computer-graphics or computer-aided-design programs.
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Additional info for 3-D Structural Geology: A Practical Guide to Quantitative Surface and Subsurface Map Interpretation
Depths in the well are measured downward from the Kelly bushing (KB). True vertical depths (TVD) are calculated from the borehole deviation survey. b Map view of the deviated well. Locations of points down hole are given by their distance from the surface location. 1 Datum The coordinates of points in a well need to be corrected to a common datum elevation, normally sea level. The depths should be adjusted so that they are positive above sea level and negative below. 1) where SD = subsea depth, KB = elevation of Kelly bushing or other measurement of surface elevation, MD = measured depth on well log.
Vertical cross section showing the relative fault displacement terminology with horizontal as the reference plane Fig. 33. Vertical cross section showing the relative fault displacement terminology with bedding as the reference plane separation fault. , originally horizontal bedding), a normal-separation fault extends a line parallel to bedding and a reverse-separation fault shortens the line. Using bedding as the frame of reference is not the same as using a horizontal plane, as illustrated by Fig.
General terminology for a surface ((patterned) offset by a fault. Heavy lines are hangingwall and footwall cutoff lines Fig. 30. Fault slip is the displacement of points (open circles) that were originally in contact across the fault. Here the correlated points represent the intersection line of a dike and a bed surface at the fault plane across a fault. It may be difficult to distinguish between a shear zone and a fault zone on the basis of observations at the map scale, and so here the term fault will be understood to include both faults and shear zones.
3-D Structural Geology: A Practical Guide to Quantitative Surface and Subsurface Map Interpretation by Richard H. Groshong